Why Give to 60 million girls?

We know that there are many worthy causes and that that there are a plethora of options to try to make the world just a little bit better: you have many options when considering which charities to support. We know what a tough choice it can be. To help you along, we’ve put together a list of what the 60 million girls Foundation has to offer.

Education creates change

First of all, we know that investing in education, especially for girls, has an important impact on all development initiatives.  From economics, to health to social progress and political leadership, girls’ education is one of the most effective tools to work toward real, lasting change. You can read about this in a previous post.

Okay, but why should I choose to give to the 60 million girls Foundation?

Our administration costs are never more than 1%

60 million girls is a volunteer run organization, with no overhead or salaries, so we are able to keep administration costs at an absolute minimum. That means that 99% of your contribution goes directly to the children we support.

Your research is already done

We do extensive research and analysis when choosing projects. Once we receive potential projects (usually 10 – 15 submissions every year), we apply a rigorous evaluation system to ensure that the partner and projects we select meet our criteria and will have the maximum impact possible on the children who need it most.

We have a follow up system so you know your money is well spent

Typically, we support two projects valued at $100,000 each per year. Once we have disbursed the funds you’ve entrusted to us, our partner will follow up with us on a regular basis, or more frequently if there is a material change in the feasibility of the project due to conditions on the ground. See our past blog post following the evaluation of the successful Oleleshwa Secondary School for girls in Kenya, run by our partner Free The Children.

We believe in technology to advance education

60 million girls believes that utilizing the best practices in technology will be crucial to making sure that all children have access to a quality education. With 124 million children and adolescents out of school, and a lack of trained teachers, technology can provide the backup necessary to extending schools’ reach and get children access to learning materials.

Rachel Pi_Wanda_Ouganda

To this end, we have a Research & Development team committed to understanding the best practices for technology and education. Since November 2013, we have been running a pilot project in Sierra Leone with CAUSE Canada to give children access to KA Lite and other educational materials. You can read about our program HERE.

It feels good to know that you can make a difference

Finally, knowing that you can make a difference feels good. Every dollar counts and every contribution is hugely appreciated.

This year, our projects are in Uganda and Nicaragua.

Please help us improve educational opportunities for vulnerable and marginalized children around the world.


We Know That Investing in Girls Pays Off

We know that educating a girl has a lasting and important impact on the individual, the child’s family and community. Educating a girl creates a positive cycle of development that gets us closer to gender equality. Below, we’ve included a list of some of the key benefits of education, put together by the Malala Fund, but first, let’s have a look at where we stand now.

Girls around the world are often the first to be excluded from school.

Globally, there are 124 million children and adolescents out of school. Just over half, 63 million, are girls. Yet, while more girls are in school, only 69% of countries will have reached gender parity in primary school enrolment by the end of this year. Further, those who are already out of school are unlikely to ever get a chance to learn.

The map below shows where most of these girls live.

UIS-Gender disparities map

Basic literacy and numeracy skills are the fundamental tools that will enable girls and women, as well as boys and men, to take hold of their lives and develop solutions adapted to the needs of their communities and country.

Have a look at the map below to see where in the world are we closest to (and farthest from) gender parity in youth literacy.


Research convincingly shows that programs directed to educating girls are more effective than virtually any other community investment in the developing world.

Here are some fast, hard facts from the Malala Fund:

Economic growth: Increasing by just 1% the number of women completing secondary education could raise a country’s economic growth by 0.3%. But even more significantly, increasing the number of people with strong literacy and numeracy scores can increase growth by a full 2%.

Improves wages & jobs: Every additional year of school increases a woman’s wages by an average of 12%. Also, if she has above-average math skills she can earn 18% more.

Saves lives: Increasing girls’ education reduces infant and maternal mortality because educated mothers have fewer pregnancies, are less likely to give birth as teenagers, and are better able to seek and negotiate life-saving health care for themselves and their young children. In fact, each additional year of a mother’s schooling can reduce the prevalence of diseases like pneumonia and measles by 14%.

Healthier, smaller families: Reducing the number of girls giving birth before age 17 promotes healthier, smaller families. If all women had a primary education, early births could fall by 10%. If all women had a secondary education, early births could fall by 59%, and mortality for children under 5 would fall by 49%.

Reinforces the positive cycle: An educated mother is more likely to send her own children to school.

Clearly, investing in girls’ education pays huge dividends. Please consider supporting the 60 million girls Foundation this giving season.

This year, we are investing in educational opportunities for children in Uganda and Nicaragua.

All children have a right to an education.

Getting Results for Girls’ Education

The 60 million girls Foundation is committed to improving the quality and access to education for girls in developing countries. We know that education makes a tangible difference in the lives of children, and educating a girl has a ripple down effect from the individual to the whole community.

Did you know that a child whose mother can read is 50% more likely to live past his or her fifth birthday?

The impact of an education is irrefutable. So we are trying to help, with the understanding that a single individual, and in our case, a small volunteer-run organization, can make a difference.

How do we do it?

Every year, the 60 million girls Foundation supports at least two educational projects for marginalized children in developing countries. We partner with Canadian charities on the ground to implement the project so selecting the right partner/project mix is crucial for ensuring that we meet our objectives. We work hard to get this right. Over the last ten years, we’ve worked with wonderful charities such as The Stephen Lewis Foundation, CAUSE Canada, World University Service Canada (WUSC), Free The Children and others. You can see the full list of projects and partners on our website.

Yet, it doesn’t end there.

Once we disburse the funds, our partner is required to follow up with a detailed progress report, so that we know that our investment is being well managed and that your donations are being used efficiently and effectively.

We recently received a report from Free The Children outlining the successes of the Oleleshwa Girls Secondary School, a project we supported in Kenya.

In 2013 we (exceptionally) committed to a two-year partnership with Free The Children to provide $300,000 in funding, over two years, for the construction of three classrooms, two dormitories for 100 girls, a school garden and sports facilities in Kenya’s Maasai Mara region. This funding, along with other donations, was to enable up to 200 girls per year to attend this innovative high school.


Free The Children has reported to us that the construction of the Oleleshwa Girls Secondary School is now complete. Throughout the school’s development, Free The Children continually evaluated construction needs and priorities. Happily, the cost of the school came in under budget and the extra funds will be used to advance extracurricular activities and clubs for the girls.

A peer mentoring program integrated into the secondary school curriculum also encouraged ongoing primary school attendance. And, the knowledge that they can continue their education to at least the secondary level has also encouraged girls to complete their primary schooling.

In fact, there has been a 117% increase in primary school graduation rates since 2011, when Free The Children’s first secondary school for girls was built at Kisaruni.

This wonderful school is helping young women to make informed decisions about their present, and above all, their future.

Thank you so much to all of our supporters for making this possible.


Annual Conference

Please join us for our 10th annual fundraising conference!

On Tuesday, November 24th, 60 million girls is pleased to welcome Craig Kielburger of Free The Children as our keynote speaker. The world-renowned Kenyan Boys Choir will begin the evening with a wonderful foray into Maasai culture.

The event will take place from 7 to 9 pm at the Grande Bibliothèque, 475 de Maisonneuve Est, Montreal (see map). The keynote address will be given in English. Refreshments will be served following the conference.

Tickets can be purchased for $100 each by downloading this form, calling us at (514) 933-6346 or online through PayPal below. Tax receipts for $85 will be issued. A limited number of VIP tickets are available at $200 and include a pre-conference cocktail with Craig Kielburger (for a tax receipt of $160).

 November 24th Conference Tickets

Please select which type of ticket you would like to purchase:

Sustainability and girls’ education in Kenya

60 million girls is proud to have partnered with Free The Children to support girls’ education in Kenya and India in the past eight years. Our guest speaker, Craig Kielburger, co-founder of Free The Children, will present his organization’s incredible work and, more specifically, the sustainable impact of its projects in supporting girls’ education over the past 20 years. KBC 1

The world-renowned Kenyan Boys Choir will begin the evening with a wonderful foray into Maasai culture. The choir’s past performances have included the inauguration ceremony of PresidenCraig-Kielburger-May-20111t Barack Obama in 2009.


Free The Children works in eight developing countries, providing a holistic and sustainable development model based on five core pillars: education, clean water, health care, food security, and alternative income programs.

On November 24th, be an active part of the 60 million girls Foundation and promote transformative change for women and girls throughout the world!

What are the Sustainable Development Goals, Anyway?

The UN General Assembly meets this week in New York and will formally approve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), putting in place the post-2015 agenda for the international community.

But what are the SDGs, exactly, and what do they hope to accomplish?


As you can see in the above photo, the 17 SDGs encompass a wide range of goals to end poverty, hunger and inequality, promote education for all and address governance and specific aspects of environment protection. Each goal has corresponding targets so that policy makers have tangible ways to focus policy initiatives.

Have a look at this UN site for the particulars of each goal, “fast facts,” related to the goal, the specific targets and helpful links. Just click on each box for the details.

In all, the SDGs are meant to create an all-encompassing 15-year framework to form a pathway to a better, more equitable, world.

The term Sustainable Development is not new. It was first used in the 1980s, coined by the Brundtland Commission in recognition of the fact that all aspects of development are dependent on each other. Good health, for example, is improved by education and a reduction in pollution. Clearly, no development goal exists in a vacuum. And this is particularly true when it comes to education.

Education is crucial for the successes of all the SDGs.  This blog post by the Global Partnership for Education explains why this is true.

The specific education goal, SDG4, focuses on ten targets and is driven by the underlying principal that every child has the right to a free education. Universal pre-primary, primary, and secondary education, are the fundamental components that are intended to provide the basis for life-long learning.

The key to success, though, will be to maintain the global will to create and implement the policies we need to achieve these goals and to find the necessary funding, especially for low and low/middle income countries. UNESCO estimates that the additional financing needs for the education goals amount to $39 billion annually. Yet, development aid to the education sector has been falling. Clearly, the global community will have to step up it’s commitment if we are to see universal education for every child.


Is there the global will to educate every child?

The world is gearing up for a new set of ambitious objectives, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to set development parameters for the next 15 years. The SDGs include a wide range of objectives and targets from ending hunger, to better health, gender equality, good governance and respect for the environment.  Education is the key to achieving all of the SDGs.

As for the specific education goals, the SDGs call for 12 years of free schooling for primary and lower secondary education, universal access to quality early childhood care and pre-primary education, and it puts emphasis on learning and skill acquisition.

The global community is setting these lofty and ambitious goals to address the still pressing problem of out-of-school children. It is an inconvenient fact that millions of children around the world continue to lack access to basic education and sometimes, even those who are in school are not getting the quality education and life skills that they need to thrive in our competitive, information-based world.

In 2000, world leaders pledged to achieve Universal Primary Education for all children, as outlined in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many countries made stunning progress in the early years by reducing or eliminating tuition, and working toward gender parity in education. Over 30 million more children are in school now than would have been had the trends of the 1990s continued, and many countries are nearing gender parity in school enrolment for primary aged children. However, success has stalled, and in the last few years, the numbers of out-of-school children have started to rise again.

There are 59 million out-of-school children of primary age. Together with children of lower secondary age (typically 12-15), the total number of children who are out of school has increased to 124 million as of 2013, up by 3 million over the previous three years. These children face barriers such as poverty, gender and place of birth that prevent them from entering a classroom.



As the recent and ongoing refugee crisis helps to illustrate, the effect of conflict on children has become one of the most pressing issues. About 36% of all out-of-school children are growing up in conflict zones, with almost 2 million of these from Syria. The impact of this conflict on children is clear, as illustrated in the graph below.




Girls are often the worst affected. Some out-of-school children may eventually start school, or they may drop out early, but many will never set foot in a class room and sadly, the majority of these are girls. Girls are often the first to be left behind, especially in times of emergency such as military conflict, natural disasters or health epidemics.




The SDGs hope to alleviate and even, perhaps, eliminate, these problems. But funding is a necessary component for success. UNESCO estimates that an additional $22 billion is needed if we are to achieve universal, free, education for pre-primary, primary and lower secondary aged students. And that rises to $39 billion if upper secondary school students are included.

While low income countries are able to pay for more than half of these objectives, they still need help from national and multilateral donors. Yet, from its peak in 2010, overall aid for education is falling.

Is it simply too idealistic to hope for education for all the world’s children? We hope not. We believe that education is a basic human right that all children deserve, regardless of gender, place of birth, family income or status.

We hope that you will join us in trying to reach the most marginalized children so that they all have a chance to learn.


Presenting Our New Website

We are absolutely thrilled to present our new, bilingual web site, with an integrated blog, easy-to-navigate dropdown menus, and up-to-date information on the people we care about most: out-of-school children in developing countries.

screen shot - web site

On our new site, you will find information about who we are and what we are doing. There are beautiful photographs of the children we are supporting, detailed information on all of our current and past projects, along with a fun map that shows their geographical scope. Through our newsletter and blog, and you can learn about our research-driven agenda to integrate new technologies into a more targeted approach to reaching marginalized, out-of-school children.

You can also find posts on issues related to educating children in developing countries, the impact of conflict on children’s education, the importance of technology, stories about out-of school children and successes we’ve had in reaching some of the most marginalized children.

Not sure why girls’ education is important? Have a look at our new website for more information. You will learn that educating girls is a crucial component all development initiatives. An educated mother is better informed and able to provide her children with better health care and nutrition. An educated girl is less likely to marry as a child, and when she does become a mother, an educated woman is more likely to ensure that her own children go to school, thus reinforcing the positive cycle of education.

There is something for everyone on our new website. If you missed a blog post or newsletter, you can find it in News and Events. If you are a Canadian charity looking to partner with us, we’ve posted information on our criteria for project selection in Our Projects.

If you would like to support the 60 million girls Foundation, please click Get Involved to see how you can help. To donate, click on Give Now and know that as a 100% volunteer run organization, your dollars will go far in helping marginalized children get an education.

Please browse the site and tell us what you think. We welcome all comments and feedback. All of our contact details are at the bottom of the home page: feel free to email us at info@60millionsdefilles. You can also follow us on Twitter and Facebook.

We look forward to hearing from you.

July 2015

8 years later… By Wanda Bedard It was like a moment frozen in time. We were standing on the same spot where we had stood eight years ago in the Maasai Mara in Kenya. I was transfixed! I had used that image in so many presentations since 2007 – a sweeping view that looked out over the community, up towards the hills in the distance. Eight years ago, it was a photo of a few dozen mud-brick, grass-thatched houses, standing apart from one another and spread around the schools of Enelerai and Emorijoi. Today, with my travel companions, my daughter, Vida Fereydoonzad who was with me in 2007, and 60 million girls‘ friend and professional photographer, Martine Michaud, we saw that the mud-walled homes were still there. However, now, beside most of them, stand sturdy brick houses with metal roofs. There are gardens, clotheslines and drying racks, and hand-washing stations next to latrines. Water kiosks along the road provide fresh, clean water to the community, and chimneys vent the smoke from the kitchens.

And then we saw Monica’s house. We couldn’t believe it! Monica! Eight years ago, we had visited Monica’s small home where she had proudly set up a very small store – no more than a wood hut about a metre square to sell beading work done by herself and the women’s group she helped head. At the time, she was clearly a leader of the local mamas and fiercely determined to help provide for her family and ensure her children, including her daughter, went to school. Today, her home stands out in the Mara with its bright orange roof. You can’t possibly miss it as you make your way along to Free The Children’s Bogani guesthouses! What had happened? The answer, of course, is progress and the evidence of a community that has taken hold of new ideas and implemented them. The resulting impact on the families and community was visible everywhere. We learned that Monica now travels to many countries to talk about women’s empowerment and women’s issues in Africa. She is a strong leader and a sought-after speaker who shares how the women have been able to build a sustainable and supportive community. It was such a stark contrast. This positive transformation was reinforced during the next week as we had a chance to speak with the women, girls and families in the areas where Free The Children works with the Maasai, Kipsigi and Kisi communities. When we visited Enelerai Primary School in 2007, it was in the process of being completed. It is now bigger with new additions – a water station, a women’s empowerment building and well-used classrooms filled with children. We also saw the Baraka Health Clinic with its emergency services, pharmacy, laboratory, birthing centre and, soon, radiology and surgery rooms. It’s a clean, simple yet well-stocked and well-equipped series of buildings that would meet our standards in Canada! We also visited Oleleshwa Secondary School, the project in which we have invested $300,000 over the last two years and the main reason for our visit to Kenya. We were overcome as we were welcomed by a group of 30 girls who showed us around this innovative school. There are no students and teachers at Oleleshwa but, rather, learners and educators. Strong community and cultural values are evident in the many beautiful hand-painted murals and quotations throughout the school. But, these were also clear from our discussions with the girls. These young women are determined and hard-working, and they realize the immense potential of education. They have a daily schedule that runs from 4:30 am to 10 pm. They have a strong desire to succeed and dream of becoming engineers, doctors, teachers, writers, scientists and journalists. There is no doubt in our minds that the girls will achieve it all. The visit to Free The Children was just as inspiring as our visit the previous week in Uganda where we spent four days at the Nyaka AIDS Orphans Project. Two years ago, 60 million girls supported the primary schools of Nyaka and Kutamba and, this year, we are raising $100,000 to fund the ongoing construction of the Nyaka Vocational Secondary School through our partner, the Stephen Lewis Foundation.


We were fortunate to spend our time in the company of Jennifer Nantale, Nyaka’s country director. Jennifer has a deep understanding of development issues, vast experience and a great passion and caring for the hundreds of children under her wing. We were left with the certainty that these children and their communities would be able to cope with a difficult reality: grieving grandmothers who must now care for up to eight young children orphaned by AIDS, finding sources of revenue to keep fragile families together, providing a safe home, getting the kids to school… The list is endless.

Farms provide fresh and nutritious food for the students and staff every day. The health clinic is open, not only to the students, but to the whole community. There are two full-time nurses and a doctor who works two days a week. We saw beautiful libraries complete with computer rooms and solar panels – the ideal spot for us to leave two Raspberry Pi Rachel devices (as we did with Free The Children). Jennifer and her staff immediately saw the impact of the content: Khan Academy Lite, Khan Academy health, hundreds and hundreds of e-books and textbooks, agricultural and health encyclopedias and Wikipedia offline. When you realize how long and how difficult it is to travel to these remote areas and the cost of books and textbooks, along with the lack of Internet access, the Rachel with its academic content and thousands of educational videos and tutorials is truly a small miracle. 

We were impressed and yet, at the same time, not surprised by the quality of the programs and the holistic approach that support these children. Free The Children and the Stephen Lewis Foundation are long-time partners of 60 million girls. Over the years, the thought and experience that go into the design of their community interventions have been clearly evident. However, it is amazing to be able to witness the impact first-hand, especially many years later. Of course, during our self-financed three-week trip, we saw so much more: gorilla trekking in the breath-taking Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, the drive through the Mara safari-style with our Maasai guides, Wilson and Jackson, and visits to other local projects. We learned about new approaches and gained a better understanding and a different perspective on what works best to support a community. We had a wonderful visit at UNICEF Uganda’s global innovation centre in Kampala. There we traded notes and learned more about UNICEF’s research and pilot projects involving technology in education and self-directed learning.  Thank you for following us on Facebook during our trip and adding your many comments and likes. We felt closer to home and only needed to have each one of you with us to make the visit perfect! Take a look!!! We are proud to invite you to take a look at our new website at www.60milliongirls.org. In order to better support viewing on a tablet or smartphone, to ensure you can easily find information and to better highlight our projects, we have decided to make this exciting change.

Our deepest thanks go to Lesley Stewart, head of our communications team, for spearheading this project along with the technical help of Louise Sa, Patrice Belair and our wonderful graphic artist, Negin Atashband. A special word of thanks also to Martine Michaud for her generous pro bono support in providing such compelling photographs of 60 million girls’ projects from our recent trip to Uganda and Kenya.

Please let us know what you think. Is there information you’d like to see that isn’t there? Do you have any questions? Can you find everything you’re looking for? Contact us at info@60milliongirls.org. And, please don’t forget to follow us on Facebook and Twitter and sign up for our blogs to receive the very latest news and articles on girls’ education and women’s empowerment. Save the date: Tuesday, November 24th – our 10th annual conference!

This year marks our 10th annual conference and we are excited to announce that Craig Kielburger, co-founder of Free The Children, will be our keynote speaker. Craig inspired us when he spoke at our second annual conference in 2007 and those who heard him will remember a committed and passionate activist. We are delighted to have him return, accompanied by the Kenyan Boys Choir. 60 million girls has partnered with Free The Children several times, in Kenya and India, to support education at both the primary and secondary levels. Craig will bring us up to date with these amazing projects!

We will be sending further details later. We are looking forward to seeing you soon!

The Great Giving Challenge

It’s the end of the Canadian school year, and many of us will celebrate our children’s teachers to thank them for their dedication throughout the school year.

Why not help teachers in the developing world as well? It feels great to give, and your contribution to the 60 million girls Foundation will support students (and teachers) in Uganda and Nicaragua this year.

Even better, each dollar donated in June as part of the Giving Challenge can help us win $10,000 to put towards our projects.


At the end of this school year we have been reflecting on a key fact: a quality education depends on trained teachers.

Yet, UNESCO estimates that in sub-Saharan Africa just half of teachers are trained. This can make learning difficult, especially when combined with large class sizes. In some countries, there are often as many as eighty children in a class.

Moreover, the need for teachers is increasing as population and school enrolment rise, and the UNESCO Institute of Statistics estimates that developing countries will need 3.4 million new teachers by 2030, in addition to the normal attrition rate, to see all children get a quality, primary education.


60 million girls tries to supplement classroom learning by offering schools offline learning materials like KA Lite, a math and science tutorial, to support children whose access to books (and trained teachers) is limited. Click here for more information on our pilot project in Sierra Leone or view this map and click on Sierra Leone in West Africa, to see what we are doing.

Your contribution to the 60 million girls Foundation will support students (and teachers).

Simply click here to give.

The students and their teachers will thank you!

Using Technology to Break Down Barriers to Education

The 60 million girls Foundation is using new technologies to help more children reach their academic goals by giving them access to learning materials, which in remote villages, is often hard to come by.

We know that there are many barriers to education for children in developing countries, and living in a rural area is one of them. There are fewer schools, a lack of trained teachers and large class sizes. In fact, UNESCO’s Institute of Statistics says that in 75% of countries only a third of teachers are trained and that 27 million more teachers will be needed by 2030.


Clearly, hiring, training and motivating more teachers is critical to better educational outcomes for children. But in the meantime, one way to work around this need is to help children help themselves through a combination of traditional in-class schooling and independent learning with computer-based programs. This is known as blended learning.

Over the last two years, we have worked with CAUSE Canada in Sierra Leone’s Kabala district to do just that. We implemented a pilot project to assess the effectiveness of KA Lite, an offline version of Khan Academy, run by the Learning Equality Foundation.

When access to electricity is limited, and internet connectivity in schools not available, KA Lite’s offline math tutorials have proven to be an excellent educational resource for children living in remote areas.

In the first phase of the project, which began in November 2013, we downloaded KA Lite onto 15 USB keys to be used on the Netbook computers at CAUSE Canada’s Integrated Learning Centre. The 60 girls who participated were already part of a Peer Literacy program, had some knowledge of computers and were keen to learn more.

They initially had access to KA Lite for two sessions over two weekends for three hours each time. As we expected, due to previous research into Sugata Mitra’s School in the Cloud, they were, for the most part, able to teach themselves the program.

Once they got the hang of it, the girls continued to use KA Lite as a math tutorial to independently supplement classroom learning and to help with homework. After three months the girls were keen for access to additional subjects like science and business.

In February 2014, we decided to use the Raspberry Pi Rachel. Developed by World Possible, it’s a mini hard drive, which costs just $150 USD and fits in the palm of your hand. It was a more robust and effective way to deliver the program. We set up a RPi that acted as server for 15-20 computers at the Integrated Learning Centre. In addition, two more were sent to Sierra Leone and used independently.


Phase 2 began in April 2014 with the intention of further assessing the effectiveness of KA Lite. Children from four schools in grades 5, 8 and 12 were split up into a control group and user group. The idea was to compare results in national exams, which are normally taken in grades 6, 9 and 13. We also wanted to undertake qualitative surveys to assess any increase in confidence, and possible changes in the children’s views on the importance of education. The children had access to CAUSE Canada’s Integrated Learning Centre for 2-3 hours per week.

Unfortunately, however, the Ebola crisis and resulting school closures interrupted the program. Our partner on the ground implemented, instead, a “mobile lab” with 10-15 notebooks, again using the Raspberry Pi to give the children, working in groups, access to math tutorials. This proved to be hugely popular with students and parents.


Now that schools in Sierra Leone are up and running again, we plan to continue to assess the impact of blended and independent learning. We’re hoping to expand the program from math to reading and literacy.

All children have a right to a quality education. We are working towards that, one child at a time.